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Research and Publication Ethics
    Younsang Cho | 2022.05.09
EAHT follows the Guidelines on Good Publication (http://publicationethics.org) or Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals of the
Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors (http://kamje.or.kr). Authors must perform the research in accordance with principles of the
Declaration of Helsinki (https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-declaration-of-helsinki-ethical-principles-for-medical-research-involving-human-
subjects).


1. Conflict of interest statement
Conflict of interest exists when an author (or the author’s institution), reviewer, or editor has financial or personal relationships that
inappropriately influence (bias) his or her actions (such relationships are also known as dual commitments, competing interests, or competing
loyalties). These relationships vary from being negligible to having great potential for influencing judgment. Not all relationships represent
true conflict of interest. On the other hand, the potential for conflict of interest can exist regardless of whether an individual believes that
the relationship affects his or her scientific judgment. Financial relationships (such as employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria,
and paid expert testimony) are the most easily identifiable conflicts of interest and the most likely to undermine the credibility of the journal,
the authors, and of science itself. However, conflicts can occur for other reasons, such as personal relationships, academic competition, and
intellectual passion (http://icmje.org/ethical_4conflicts.html). If there are any conflicts of interest, authors should disclose them in the
manuscript. The conflicts of interest may occur during research process; however, important point is the disclosure itself. If there is a
disclosure, editors, reviewers, and reader can approach the manuscripts after understanding the situation where the research work was processed.

2. Statement of human and animal rights, informed consent and institutional review board approval
Human research should be done in accordance of the Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects, outlined in the Helsinki
Declaration of 1975 (revised 2013), available from: https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-declaration-of-helsinki-ethical-principles-for-medical-
research-involving-human-subjects. Clinical studies that do not meet the Helsinki Declaration will not be considered for publication. Human
subjects should not be identifiable, such that patients’ names, initials, hospital numbers, dates of birth, or other protected healthcare
information should not be disclosed. For animal subjects, research should be performed based on the National or Institutional Guide for the Care
and Use of Laboratory Animals, and the ethical treatment of all experimental animals should be maintained. Copies of written informed consents
should be kept for studies on human subjects. For the clinical and epidemiological studies of human subjects, there should be a certificate,
agreement, or approval by the institutional review board (IRB). Approval and compliance with research requirements regarding human subjects must
be noted, and information regarding informed consent procedures must be described in the “Methods” section of manuscripts concerning human
subjects research. Authors should assure in the “Methods” section of manuscript that animals used in a study have been treated humanely and with
regard for the alleviation of suffering, and that the protocol was approved by an institutional animal care and use committee.

3. Registration of the clinical trial research
Any research that deals with clinical trial should be registered to the primary national clinical trial registration site such as Korea Clinical
Research Information Service (http://cris.nih.go.kr), other primary national registry sites accredited by World Health Organization
(https://www.who.int/clinical-trials-registry-platform/network/primary/en) or ClinicalTrials.gov (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/), a service of
the US National Institutes of Health.

4. Authorship
Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content and should
meet the authorship criteria of the Uniform Requirement for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (http://icmje.org/ethical_1author.html).
One or more authors should take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, from inception to published article. Authorship credit
should be based only on: 1) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2)
drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; 3) final approval of the version to be published; and 4)
agreeing to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that the questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work
are appropriately investigated and resolved. Authors should meet these 4 conditions. If the number of authors is greater than 6, there should be a
list of each author’s role for the submitted paper. If any persons who do not meet above 4 criteria, they may be placed as contributors in
Acknowledgements section. The addition of an author to a manuscript under review is possible only with the editor’s approval. Changes in
authorship cannot be made after the manuscript is accepted for publication. Multiple first authors can be accepted if corresponding author
believes that the authors contributed equally while co-corresponding authors are not allowed.

5. Originality and duplicate publication
Contributions submitted to EAHT must be original works of the author(s) and must not have been previously published in print or online or
simultaneously submitted to another publication. Dissertations/theses are not regarded as prior publication. Presentation of original results
prior to publication at scientific meetings is generally encouraged. The contents published as the proceedings or presentations in academic
conference but not as the whole papers can be submitted to EAHT. EAHT supports posting of research articles on not-for-profit preprint servers
such as arXiv.org, bioRxiv.org, ChemRxiv.org, medRxiv.org, and the like. Distribution on the Internet in other ways may be considered prior
publication. Authors should send related materials (published, in press or in reviewing) with the submitted manuscript to the editorial board. It
is mandatory for all authors to resolve any copyright and plagiarism issues when citing a figure or table from a different journal that is not
open access.

6. Secondary publication
It is possible to republish manuscripts if the manuscripts satisfy the condition of secondary publication of the Uniform Requirements for
Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors’, available from:
http://www.icmje.org/publishing_4overlap.html as followings: Certain types of articles, such as guidelines produced by governmental agencies and
professional organizations, may need to reach the widest possible audience. In such instances, editors sometimes deliberately publish material
that is also being published in other journals, with the agreement of the authors and the editors of those journals. Secondary publication for
various other reasons, in the same or another language, especially in other countries, is justifiable and can be beneficial provided that the
following conditions are met. The authors have received approval from the editors of both journals (the editor concerned with secondary
publication must have a photocopy, reprint, or manuscript of the primary version). The priority of the primary publication is respected by a
publication interval of at least one week (unless specifically negotiated otherwise by both editors). The paper for secondary publication is
intended for a different group of readers; an abbreviated version could be sufficient. The secondary version faithfully reflects the data and
interpretations of the primary version.
The footnote on the title page of the secondary version informs readers, peers, and documenting agencies that the paper has been published in
whole or in part and states the primary reference. A suitable footnote might read: “This article is based on a study first reported in the [title
of journal, with full reference].” Permission for such secondary publication should be free of charge. The title of the secondary publication
should indicate that it is a secondary publication (complete republication, abridged republication, complete translation, or abridged translation)
of a primary publication.

7. Process to manage the research and publication misconduct
When the Journal faces suspected cases of research and publication misconduct such as redundant (duplicate) publication, plagiarism, fabricated
data, changes in authorship, undisclosed conflict of interest, ethical problem with a submitted manuscript, a reviewer who has appropriated an
author’s idea or data, complaints against editors, etc., the resolving process will be followed by flowchart provided by the Committee on
Publication Ethics (https://publicationethics.org/guidance/Flowcharts). The discussion and decision on the suspected cases are done by editorial
board.

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